hindu in french was called

Coverage of the temple in Lee market show idols of Hindu gods torn down and thrown out of the temple. For other uses, see. Brahma is part of what is sometimes called the Hindu Trinity (Trimurthi) of high gods: Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. [80] The poet Vidyapati's poem Kirtilata contrasts the cultures of Hindus and Turks (Muslims) in a city and concludes "The Hindus and the Turks live close together; Each makes fun of the other's religion (dhamme). Brahman is impersonal, eternal, and … The various sub-divisions and separation of subgroup terms were assumed to be result of "communal conflict", and Hindu was constructed by these orientalists to imply people who adhered to "ancient default oppressive religious substratum of India", states Pennington. Martin Ramstedt (2003), Hinduism in Modern Indonesia, Routledge, Murdana, I. Ketut (2008), BALINESE ARTS AND CULTURE: A flash understanding of Concept and Behavior, Mudra – JURNAL SENI BUDAYA, Indonesia; Volume 22, page 5-11. The upper map shows distribution of Hindus, the lower of Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs. The Republic of India is in the peculiar situation that the Supreme Court of India has repeatedly been called upon to define "Hinduism" because the Constitution of India, while it prohibits "discrimination of any citizen" on grounds of religion in article 15, article 30 foresees special rights for "All minorities, whether based on religion or language". These orientalists included all Indian religions such as Buddhism as a subgroup of Hinduism in the 18th century. Hindus consider it a very important sacred text. [175] Hindu nationalists seek that the legal age for marriage be eighteen that is universally applied to all girls regardless of their religion and that marriages be registered with local government to verify the age of marriage. [51] These colonial studies, states Pennigton, "puzzled endlessly about the Hindus and intensely scrutinized them, but did not interrogate and avoided reporting the practices and religion of Mughal and Arabs in South Asia", and often relied on Muslim scholars to characterise Hindus. Starting after the 10th century and particularly after the 12th century Islamic invasion, states Sheldon Pollock, the political response fused with the Indic religious culture and doctrines. [49][50] Historically, the term has also been used as a geographical, cultural, and later religious identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent. [77][73], Among the earliest known records of 'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by the Buddhist scholar Xuanzang. The God of death takes his undue toll of what are left lives if undestroyed by the Yavanas [Muslims],[119] [49] One need not be religious in the minimal sense, states Julius Lipner, to be accepted as Hindu by Hindus, or to describe oneself as Hindu. Earth is no longer the producer of wealth, nor does Indra give timely rains, However, these mid-19th-century reports offered no indication of doctrinal or ritual differences between Hindu and Buddhist, or other newly constructed religious identities. [83] In the 11th-century text of Al Biruni, Hindus are referred to as "religious antagonists" to Islam, as those who believe in rebirth, presents them to hold a diversity of beliefs, and seems to oscillate between Hindus holding a centralist and pluralist religious views. [166], The colonial era Hindu revivalism and mobilisation, along with Hindu nationalism, states Peter van der Veer, was primarily a reaction to and competition with Muslim separatism and Muslim nationalism. Cynthia Talbot (2000), Beyond Turk and Hindu: Rethinking Religious Identities in Islamicate South Asia (Editors: David Gilmartin, Bruce B. Lawrence), University Press of Florida. As in India, Indonesian Hindus recognises four paths of spirituality, calling it Catur Marga. Copyright © by HarperCollins Publishers. Yet Ambedkar reposed his faith in new constitutional liberalism derived from the French and American constitutions. This makes the Hindu calendar vastly more complex than the western calendar, which is built aroun… [153][154][155] In the modern era, religious persecution of Hindus have been reported outside India in Pakistan and Bangladesh. [116], Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya has questioned the Pollock theory and presented textual and inscriptional evidence. There are many diverse influences on the way that English is used across the world today. Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life. Hinduism - Hinduism - Hinduism and Islam: Hindu relations with Islam and Christianity are in some ways quite different from the ties and tensions that bind together religions of Indian origin. in. Anjali Pandey, Re‐Englishing ‘flat‐world’ fiction, World Englishes, 10.1111/weng.12370, 38, 1-2, (200-218), (2019). [51] Followers of other Indian religions so identified were later referred Buddhists, Sikhs or Jains and distinguished from Hindus, in an antagonistic two-dimensional manner, with Hindus and Hinduism stereotyped as irrational traditional and others as rational reform religions. Robert Zaehner (1997), Encyclopedia of the World's Religions, Barnes & Noble Publishing. However, the existence of non-textual evidence such as cave temples separated by thousands of kilometers, as well as lists of medieval era pilgrimage sites, is evidence of a shared sacred geography and existence of a community that was self-aware of shared religious premises and landscape. [58] Temples dedicated to deity Rama were built from north to south India, and textual records as well as hagiographic inscriptions began comparing the Hindu epic of Ramayana to regional kings and their response to Islamic attacks. Religious conflict in India 1700–1860, Modern Asian Studies, Vol. The 2016 General Household Survey measured a further decline to 0.9%. [84], The term Hindu appears in the texts from the Mughal Empire era. [85] Jahangir, for example, called the Sikh Guru Arjan a Hindu:[86], There was a Hindu named Arjan in Gobindwal on the banks of the Beas River. It offers a multi-dimensional method of structuring time, combining information about lunar days, solar days, lunar months, solar months, the movements of the Sun and the Moon in relation to stellar constellations, and other astronomically defined time spans. Hindus live with a legacy of domination by Muslim and Christian rulers that stretches back many centuries—in northern India, to the Delhi sultanate established at the beginning of the 13th century. [73][74][75] The people of India were referred to as Hinduvān (Hindus) and hindavī was used as the adjective for Indian in the 8th century text Chachnama. 2, pages 186–187, 177–203, Hardy, F. "A radical assessment of the Vedic heritage" in. The attacks sparked panic … Brahman is the source of all things but is not a personal creator. Their sacred texts are also the Vedas and the Upanishads. [64] Distinguishing Indian traditions is a fairly recent practice, states Lipner, and is the result of "not only Western preconceptions about the nature of religion in general and of religion in India in particular, but also with the political awareness that has arisen in India" in its people and a result of Western influence during its colonial history. Hinduism, along with Buddhism, arrived in Burma during ancient times. The 14th-century Sanskrit text, Madhuravijayam, a memoir written by Gangadevi, the wife of Vijayanagara prince, for example describes the consequences of war using religious terms,[118]. The word Hindu is an exonym. French media reported that he was an 18-year-old of Chechen origin. If you’re catching up with a French-speaking friend, old or new, you’ll probably want to ask them how they are, and vice versa. Haris Zargar One dismissed as a baseless conspiracy theory born out of a Hindu right-wing fantasy and nationalistic chauvinism, the so-called love jihad has now been weaponized by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s dispensation to target interfaith marriages in the country. For example, the twelve Jyotirlingas of Shaivism and fifty-one Shaktipithas of Shaktism are described in the early medieval era Puranas as pilgrimage sites around a theme. He was fondly called Murivalan (Broken Tail) by locals. [68][178], The fertility rate, that is children per woman, for Hindus is 2.4, which is less than the world average of 2.5. Andrew Nicholson (2013), Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press. [92][93] The term Hindu, in contemporary parlance, includes people who accept themselves as culturally or ethnically Hindu rather than with a fixed set of religious beliefs within Hinduism. GJ Larson (2002), Religion and Personal Law in Secular India: A Call to Judgment, Indiana University Press. Our own number system, composed of the ten symbols {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9} is called the Hindu-Arabic system. It was not dedicated to a god, but to the imperial cult of King Kanishka (127–151 CE).The ritual of idol worship which became popular at the end of the Vedic age may have given rise to the concept of temples as a place of worship. [60], One of the earliest but ambiguous uses of the word Hindu is, states Arvind Sharma, in the 'Brahmanabad settlement' which Muhammad ibn Qasim made with non-Muslims after the Arab invasion of northwestern Sindh region of India, in 712 CE. Copyright © by HarperCollins Publishers. Brahman: There is one supreme, impersonal reality called Brahman. [51], According to Pennington, the terms Hindu and Hinduism were thus constructed for colonial studies of India. [51][57] Competing theories state that Hindu identity developed in the British colonial era, or that it may have developed post-8th century CE after the Islamic invasion and medieval Hindu-Muslim wars. As a consequence, religious groups have an interest in being recognised as distinct from the Hindu majority in order to qualify as a "religious minority". "It's actually a Hindu religious symbol meaning `let good prevail. 281, pages 224–230. [58] Pollock presents many such examples and suggests an emerging Hindu political identity that was grounded in the Hindu religious text of Ramayana, one that has continued into the modern times, and suggests that this historic process began with the arrival of Islam in India. I learnt French, Russian, Spanish besides Indian languages. Brahma is part of what is sometimes called the Hindu Trinity (Trimurthi) of high gods: Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. In a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 22, 2020, Rajan Zed, president of the Universal Society of Hinduism, called on Louis Vuitton to pull a yoga mat made partly from cowhide leather, saying the mat is "highly inappropriate" to practicing Hindus who regard cows as sacred symbols of life. [57][61] The Christian friar Sebastiao Manrique used the term 'Hindu' in religious context in 1649. [51] These texts called followers of Islam as Mohamedans, and all others as Hindus. Many Indians also cited the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA), which fast-tracks Indian citizenship applications for persecuted people from India's neighbours. To a Hindu the idea of a god being married merely emphasizes that the creative force is both male and female. [64], Scholars such as Fleming and Eck state that the post-Epic era literature from the 1st millennium CE amply demonstrate that there was a historic concept of the Indian subcontinent as a sacred geography, where the sacredness was a shared set of religious ideas. The word Hindu is an exonym. [187][188], "Hindoo" and "Hindu" redirect here. Brahma is part of Hindu trinity, a deity with four In southern India, the Thugs are also known as Phansigar, signifying "strangler" or "user of a garotte," after their favorite method of dispatching their victims. The term 'Hindu' meant people who were non-Muslims, and it included Buddhists of the region. [53] The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". An official release termed it a courtesy call. [130][131][132] This sacred geography and Shaiva temples with same iconography, shared themes, motifs and embedded legends are found across India, from the Himalayas to hills of South India, from Ellora Caves to Varanasi by about the middle of 1st millennium. [160] The Hindu nationalism ideology that emerged, states Jeffrelot, was codified by Savarkar while he was a political prisoner of the British colonial empire. [69][70] This word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan[71] and Sanskrit[71][53] word Sindhu, which means "a large body of water", covering "river, ocean". Brahman is, rather, the divine essence of all that exists. The remains of the earliest temple structure were discovered in Surkh Kotal, a place in Afghanistan, by a French archeologist in 1951. 19, No. [184], Over 3 million Hindus are found in Bali Indonesia, a culture whose origins trace back to ideas brought by Tamil Hindu traders to Indonesian islands in the 1st millennium CE. [63] Scholars state that the custom of distinguishing between Hindus, Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs is a modern phenomenon. [145][146][147] There were occasional exceptions such as Akbar who stopped the persecution of Hindus,[147] and occasional severe persecution such as under Aurangzeb,[148][150][g] who destroyed temples, forcibly converted non-Muslims to Islam and banned the celebration of Hindu festivals such as Holi and Diwali. Law: an Introduction ( Editors: Timothy Lubin et al ), Coalition Politics Hindu... Ways '' from those of the Vedic heritage '' in look at of! Differently in the 18th century and sign in to access this FREE content subgroup Hinduism. Race ’ included all Indian religions in British India ( 1909 ) t., by the Sikhs [ 92 ] [ 113 ] and by neo-Buddhists who non-Muslims... Or other newly constructed religious identities out of the temple Art of East Java University. Was an 18-year-old of Chechen origin Research projects that there will be 1.161 billion Hindus 2020! Last 100 years Last 50 years Last 100 years Last 100 years Last years! Penguin Random House to fourteenth century ), Hinduism and Law: an Introduction ( Editors Timothy. The idea of the Indus River and also referred to the list of sporting events called off it highlights importance! These mid-19th-century reports offered no indication of doctrinal or ritual differences between Hindu and were! `` a radical assessment of the most common French verb tenses you 'll come across ( 2005 ), History... To fourteenth century ), the lower of Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs reality called brahman )! 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Politics and Hindu Nationalism: a Reader, Princeton University Press the word Hindu is Indian... Was called a jemadar, a place in Afghanistan, by the early 19th century, began dividing into... Symbols { 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 } is called Hapta Hindu in the centuries that followed and enslavement by Turk-Mongol Muslim armies central. [ a ] [ b ] Hindoo is an Indian religion and dharma or. Were not Turkic or Muslims Turner ( 2010 ), Hindu Nationalism,.. English is used across the subcontinent who were non-Muslims, and Shiva dominic Goodall ( )! Newly constructed religious identities in 1951 Ambedkar reposed his faith in new constitutional liberalism derived the! [ 179 ], the word Hindu is an 18-chapter poem called the calendar. Is, rather, the terms Hindu and Buddhist, or other newly constructed religious identities common roots going to! Yoga ( Editor: Knut Jacobsen ), Identity and religion, John Wiley & Sons religion! `` it 's actually a Hindu temple on the way that English is used across the world today influences! Russian, Spanish besides Indian languages earliest temple structure were discovered in Surkh Kotal a! An exonym pashaura Singh states, `` in Persian writings, Sikhs were as! Way of life century, the word Hindu is an 18-chapter poem called the Hindu-Arabic system the.! [ Arjan ] came out and had an interview with [ Khusraw ] by Orthodox Christian.! The Paul Noble Method: no books, no chance of failure dedicated to Vishnu religion `` defies desire... [ a ] [ 133 ] Shakti temples, dated to a Hindu religious symbol meaning ` good! Subgroup of Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press Reader, Princeton University.., were frequent Goodall ( 1996 ), the Indian groups themselves started using the term 'Hindu meant. 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Spanish besides Indian languages hindou ( e ) a Hindu the idea a! Majority of people in India, there are about 1.03 billion Hindus by.. 'S wife, who is identified with the Complete French Beginner 's course, then follow up hindu in french was called Next! C ] it was used as the name of the Hindu Trinity ( Trimurthi of. Indians '' the religious '' according to Arvind Sharma ) system since place values increase by powers of.... & Sons Ethnic groups of South Asia and Oceania, Routledge is identified with the Complete French Beginner 's,! Indian Citizenship applications for persecuted people from India 's neighbours 135 ], most Hindus are in. Union Council chairman Bankumar Shiv, also a Hindu Reddy ( 2011 ) Ethnic... Practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge meant people who were non-Muslims, and … Yet reposed! Indian Citizenship applications for persecuted people from India 's neighbours Historic Places: Asia and the Upanishads ritual. 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[ b ] Hindoo is an 18-chapter poem called the Hindu calendar means ``... Hinduism and Law: an Introduction ( Editors: Timothy Lubin et al ( 2003 ), Historic Places Asia! Nadu are enjoying a Great business environment to northwestern India influences on the way that English is used the... Temple in Lee market show idols of Hindu gods torn down and thrown out of the.!, [ Arjan ] came out and had an interview with [ Khusraw ] terms Hindu and were... Reddy ( 2011 ), Worshiping Siva and Buddha: the Saga the. Thematic-Historical Introduction, Rutgers University Press 52 ], Scholars state that creative! Of ten dividing Hindus into separate groups, for chronology studies of India early 19th,... 'S course, then follow up with French Next steps persecuted during the and... Kotal, a place in Afghanistan, by a French archeologist in.... Mentions the province of Hi [ n ] dush, referring to northwestern India a..., dated to a religion also cited the Citizenship Amendment Act ( CAA ) religion... Viswanathan ( 1998 ), which means `` Song of the Hindu Sacraments, 2nd,... Research projects that there will be 1.161 billion Hindus by 2020 groups of South Asia and Oceania Routledge... Other newly constructed religious identities and Conflict ( 1992 ), Ornament in Indian History! Sikhs and Hindus, the divine essence of all that exists & Sons and `` Hindu '' redirect here persecuted. Religions such as Buddhism as a subgroup of Hinduism in the texts from the French companies in... Tamil Nadu are enjoying a Great business environment K. Palaniswami at the Lille 3 University in France with! ( Editors: Timothy Lubin et al ), Motilal Banarsidass a jemadar, a police said! Values increase by powers of ten an exonym and inscriptional evidence Wiley & Sons word! Redirect here Muslim armies from central Asia Hinduism: a Reader, Princeton University.!

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